Differnce of Mount Merapi And Mount Bromo Characteristics – The eruption of Mount Merapi and Mount Bromo caused a tremendous disaster and a huge loss. One of the effects of the losses caused during the eruption of these two mountains occurred in small industrial activities in the surrounding area, for example around Merapi, especially in the District of Cangkringan, Sleman until the cessation of industrial activities. Mapping and classification of the effects of eruptions and the characteristics of the two mountains are needed. The results obtained from the study showed that almost 50% of the conditions around the peak were severely damaged. If we have not been able to know a characteristic as well as the impacts that occur, then for a disaster mitigation process going forward it will be more difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the characteristics to find out how large the eruption of the two mountains is.
Mount Bromo And Mount Merapi
Mount Bromo has an altitude of 2,392 meters above sea level in four regions, namely Probolinggo Regency, Pasuruan, Lumajang, and Malang Regency. The body of Mount Bromo is interlocked between valleys and canyons with a caldera or sea of sand covering an area of about 10 square kilometers. Mount Bromo has a crater with garistengah ± 800 meters (north-south) and ± 600 meters (east-west). While the danger area is a circle with radius 4 km from the center of Bromo crater. The mountain has characteristics or small eruption models. The characteristics possessed are different from other buildings such as Merapi which is classified as high volcanic. If an eruption occurs, the material spewed by Bromo is in the form of sand and ash with a radius of 6 to 10 kilometers. While the 129 volcanoes in the Indonesian territory of Mount Merapi are among the most active. Merapi is a volcano with Strato-volcano type and in petrologimagma Merapi is andesite-basaltic. Towering as high as 2978 m in the heart of Java, Merapi has a diameter of 28 km, an area of 300-400 km2 and a volume of 150 km3. Posisigeographic Merapi 7
32 ‘5 “S; longitude 110
26 ‘5 “E. covers the administrative area
Central Java Province and Yogyakarta Special Region. Merapi is formed as a dynamic on an archipelago due to the subduction of meeting the Indo-Australian plate with an Asian plate. The dynamics of Merapi eruption are generally preceded by lava dome growth followed by hot clouds, incandescent lava and pyroclastic falls. The main danger that threatens about 40,000 people living in Disaster Prone Areas is Pyroclastic Flow or the flow of clouds in addition to secondary hazards that can occur in the rainy season. Merapi eruption is included frequently in the last 100 years, with an average of one eruption within 2-5 years. Beyond the threat of disaster that can happen at any time, Merapim has social and economic aspects that are important for the progress of the surrounding area. Material of Merapi eruption such as sand and stone becomes a supporting development in Yogyakarta and Central Java as well as agricultural products produced
Mount Bromo has different eruption characteristics compared to other volcanoes. If we compare with Mount Merapi which is classified as high volcanic, Mount Bromo has small eruption characteristics. Material released during the eruption of Mount Bromo can be in the form of sand and ash with a radius of 6-10 km. This is different from the material spewed out by Mount Merapi which can be very thick lava which can clog the crater mouth so that the gas pressure in it increases which ultimately makes the hot cloud “wedhus gembel” come out. about the caldera in the Tengger Mountains itself, because Mount Bromo itself is a volcano in the caldera region of the Tengger Mountains.
Based on its shape, Mount Bromo belongs to the type of caldera, which is a volcano formed from a very strong explosion which then throws the tip of the mountain itself. The notion of the caldera is a volcanic feature formed from the fall of the land after volcanic eruptions. The term caldera is often confused with volcanic craters. The word “caldera” itself comes from Spanish, which means pan. There are two theories regarding the formation of the caldera, namely the caldera formed through large eruptions and the caldera formed through small eruptions. When the eruption takes place, the gases inside the liquid magma continue to press until finally it can become an energy source for the release of magma. When all these materials and gases come out, this makes the magma chamber empty and finally the top of the volcano sinks down and is filled with other material. Some also form a new volcano inside.
Then, for the second theory, caldera formation can be caused by small eruptions. When the eruption took place, the molten lava burst through the gap beside the mountain. Finally, the gap was the exit of the magma from the magma chamber. Then just like the first theory, the top of the volcano then sinks down and forms the caldera. Both theories basically work according to the law of gravity. When the magma chamber becomes empty, the gravitational force pulls the wall up the mountain down and finally there is subsidence that forms the caldera.
Based on the theory of caldera formation above, the formation of the caldera on Mount Bromo is included in the first theory, namely the formation through small eruptions. That is because the volcanic activity that is not too large, such as Mount Merapi and its eruption are classified as small eruptions. In addition, Mount Bromo is also located in the caldera region of the Tengger Mountains, causing volcanic activity in the magma chamber to be divided with other volcanoes.
Want to see the most beautiful view of sunrise in the country? Come to Mount Bromo, Probolinggo Regency, East Java. There is a special sensation of seeing the sun slowly emerge from behind the mountain and the cloud feels beneath our eyes. Like waving on a mountain. From Jakarta to Mount Bromo can be reached in three ways. By air, directly buy tickets for the Jakarta-Surabaya flight. Almost all national airlines open the Jakarta-Surabaya route. Arriving at Juanda Airport there is a choice of Damri buses that take us to the Bungurasih bus terminal in Surabaya. Take a bus in the direction of Jember or Banyuwangi. To the bus conductor, say that you want to go down in Probolinggo. Until Terminal Probolinggo, you can take the village transportation to the Ngadisari District department, it will cost around 25 thousand rupiah. But don’t be surprised. The village transportation is waiting for passengers to be full, then he will leave. So it’s a long time to wait for the old colt type to leave. Through the railroad, there are many choices for you, from executive class to economics. You can take the Agro Angrek executive train or the New Style non-AC economy train to Surabaya. From Gubeng Railway Station, Surabaya, you can take the East Pearl Railway Surabaya-Banyuwangi which departs at 09.00 WIB every day. You buy a ticket until Probolinggo Station. From Probolinggo Station you can take city transportation to the Probolinggo Bus Terminal to replace village transportation to Ngadisari District, the last city before going to Mount Bromo. If you want to take the executive bus directly to Probolinggo, there is a choice of several executive buses at Lebakbulus Jakarta Bus Terminal in the direction of Jember or Banyuwangi. You just have to buy a ticket for Jakarta-Probolinggo. In Ngadisari Subdistrict there are many choices of places to stay. Can be in hotels or houses of residents who are only 100 to 200 thousand rupiahs. Affairs of the stomach need not worry. There are many food stalls that sell hot drinks and food to reduce the cold air of Mount Bromo. To see the sunrise to Mount Bromo the location is in Penanjakan. You need to rent a hardtop jeep to take you across the sea of sand. The rental price is around 300 to 400 thousand rupiah per car. To rent this car you can partner with several tourists. One car is enough for seven people. You must have ordered this jeep at night. The hotel owner at 03.00 WIB will wake you up to leave to see the sunrise. The jeep driver here is very good at driving in the dark sea of sand. Don’t forget to bring a jacket, scarf, gloves, and earplugs. Because in addition to the cold air, also strong winds make you cold. It’s fortunate if you don’t come in cloudy weather so you can see the sun rising. Around 04.45 WIB the sun will rise slowly. About 30 minutes you will be amazed to see the beauty of the sunrise until finally the bright sun shakes and the peak of Mount Bromo is seen next to Mount Batok.
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Do not be surprised that many visitors clap their hands when the sun appears slowly because its beauty has its own sensation. We will feel above the clouds seeing the mist below dancing above Mount Bromo. The peak of Mount Semeru also looks from a distance back to Mount Bromo. After satisfied the photos together at Penanjakan, you can go directly to the crater of Mount Bromo. A rented jeep will take you to the last stop near the temple at the foot of Mount Bromo. To climb to the top of Mount Bromo crater you can go up the stairs to the top. If you don’t want to reach it, Anad can rent a horse with a cost of 100 thousand rupiah. You will ride a horse by being led by a horse owner so you can be safe on the saddle of a horse without worrying about his horse running. From the top of Mount Bromo you will see directly the crater which smells a little sulfur. The view below is the beauty of the sea of sand and the Hindu temple looks elegant in the distance of the foot of the mountain. The horses that are parked waiting for visitors to rent also add to the beauty of the scenery. On the side of Mount Bromo you can also see Mount Batok which looks like a giant layered cake because the shape of the mountain is like layers. After being satisfied with taking pictures at the top of Mount Bromo, you can get ready to go down from the top towards Ngadiari. Of course back by riding a loyal rental jeep waiting for you to return to the inn.
This article has been aired on Kompas.com with the title “Travel Tips to Mount Bromo from Jakarta”
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Well, that’s above the explanation about mount bromo or mount merapi, Hopefully it is useful. Thanks.